Impamvu imbogo ziba nyinshi muri pariki y’Ibirunga ngo nta ntare zibamo

Mu ishyamba ry’ibirunga haravugwamo  amashyo y’imbogo nyinshi z’amabara y’umukara n’umweru , zikaba zaratangiye gutoroka pariki no kujya guteza umutekano muke mu baturage . Nubwo hashyizweho ikigega cy’indishyi ku bangirizwa n’izi nyamaswa, abaturage bakomeje kugaragaza ko indishyi n’impozamarira bahabwa biba bitajyanye n’imitungo yabo iba yangijwe n’izo mbogo.

Abahanga mu bumenyi bw’ibyanya ( ecologistes), bemeza ko igihe cyose muri ibi byanya hatabonekamo ku buryo buringanijwe ubwoko bw’inyamaswa zirya ibyatsi ( herbivores), ubw’izirya inyama ( carnivores) ndetse ni z’uburya byose ( omnvivores), bitera ibibazo bikomeye mu icunga ry’ibi byanya, akaba  aribyo byaba byaratumye izo mbogo ziba nyinshi.

Pariki y’igihugu y’ibirunga ni parki iherereye mu majyaruguru y’uburengerazuba bw’ U Rwanda, mu turere twa Burera, Musanze, Nyabihu na Rubavu, ikaba iri ku buso bwa hegitari ibihumbi 13. Iyi pariki igizwe cyane n’ishyamba ry’inzitane ritoshye, urugano,n’ibindi byatsi byubaka ibihuru, byose biboneka ku birunga bya Muhabura, Gahinga, Sabyinyo, Bisoke na Kalisimbi.

Bivugwa ko imbogo ziba muri pariki y’ibirunga arizo mu bwoko “buffle d’Afrique” .Ngo izo mbogo  zirangwa no  kuba mu mukumbi ( troupeau) w’ibinyacumi cyangwa abinyejan,  zigakunda gutabarana iyo zitewe n’umwanzi. Uw’ingenzi muri abo banzi b’imbogo ni intare ariko n’utwana twazo dukunze kwibasirwa n’ingona, impyisi cyangwa ingwe.  Imbogo ikuze y’ikigabo ishobora kugira hagati y’ibiro 700 kugeza kuri 900, naho ikigore kikagira hagati y’ibiro 300 na 500.  Ingore zitangira kubyara ku myaka 5 kandi zikabyara icyana kimwe mu buzima bwazo. Zihaka hagati y’amezi 11 na 12 , icyana kikavukana ibiro 40, zikonsa mu gihe cy’imyaka 2.  Imboga isaza ku myaka 15 kugeza kuri 18. Imbogo ni inyamaswa y’ingome cyae cyane igihe yakomerekejwe.

Nubwo bigaragaraga ko imbogo zitororoka vuba, ntabwo byazibuza kwiyongera cyane  mu gihe nta nyamaswa zindi ziyigiraho nk’umuhigo no mu gihe nta byorezo bikomeye byibasira izi nyamaswa  kuri ubu, ibyatuma iki kibazo cy’inyamswa zonera abaturage kirushaho gufata indi ntera.

Koko rero, kimwe n’inka, imbogo zakunze kwibasirwa ni indwara zirimo iy’ubutaka ( peste bovine) igituntu (tuberculose) ariko kuri ubu izi ndwara ntizikiri ikibazo gikomeye ku buzima bw’imbogo. Indwara kuri ubu bivugwa ko ikiboneka mu mbogo z’ishyamba ni iy’uburenge   (fievre aphteuse) kandi nayo nta mibare ihari igaragaza ko yaba ari icyorezo kuri izi nyamaswa.

Nubwo mu bihe byo hambere havuzwe ko iyi pariki yigeze guturwamo n’intare n’ingwe, ibikoko bizwiho gutungwa n’umuhigo, muri iki gihe nta nyamaswa itungwa n’umuhigo igaragara ituye muri iyi pariki, ibishobora gutera ibibazo bikomeye by’ubwiyongere bukabije  bw’inyamaswa zirya ibyatsi.

Birazwi ko  umuhigi w’ibanze ku mbogo ari intare, gusa imibereho yayo ntiyihanganira ubuzima bwo mu ishyamba ry’inzitane kandi rihanamye nka pariki y’ibirunga. Intare zikunze kwibera mu mashyamba y’imikenke  ( savane), mu mashyamba atari inzitane ( semi ouvert) ndetse no mu bisa n’ahajya kwegera ubutayu ( semi desert), hafi y’imigezi itemba. Imiterere nk’iyi ikaba iyorohereza gukora umuhigo no kubona amazi ku buryo bworoshye.

Ibyo kuba hazanwa muri pariki y’ibirunga intare nk’uko byakozwe muri Pariki y’Akagera ngo zibe zagabanya ubwiyongere bw’imbogo, ntabwo byashoboka kuko izakoherezwayo ntizamara kabiri kubera kubura ikizitunga.

Ubundi buryo bwagatekerejweho ni ubwo gutanga impushya zo guhinga izi nyamaswa nk’uko ibihugu birimo Zimbabwe na Botswana zabigenje igihe zahuraga n’ikibazo cy’ubwiyongere bukabije bw’inzovu n’imbogo muri pariki zabyo. Gusa imiikorere nk’iyi yamaganwa  bikomeye n’impirimbanyi z’ibidukikije zo zemeza ko ikibazo ahubwo gikomereye Isi ari icy’igabanuka rikomeye ry’izi nyamaswa, hakaba hakwiye gushyirwa imbere ingamba zo kuzirinda aho gushyiraho amategeko azimarira ku icumu.

Uwitonze Captone

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